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Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation
Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)


1.1 Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) -

  • A direct relationship exists between water, sanitation, health, nutrition, and human well being. Consumption of contaminated drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, lack of personal and food hygiene and improper disposal of solid and liquid waste have been the major causes of many diseases in developing countries like India. Though a lot of work has been done in the field of rural sanitation in the past decade under TSC in the country, sanitation coverage, which ought to be a way of life to safeguard health, is still inadequate. The practice of open defecation in India is due to a combination of factors – the most prominent of them being the traditional behavioural pattern and lack of awareness of people about the associated health hazards. As per the latest data of Census 2011, in rural areas, 32.7% families have access to sanitation facilities.

  • India’s first nationwide programme for rural sanitation, the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP), was launched in 1986 in the Ministry of Rural Development with the objective of improving the quality of life of rural people and to provide privacy and dignity to women. The programme provided large subsidy for construction of sanitary latrines for BPL households. The programme was supply driven, highly subsidized, and gave emphasis on a single construction model. Based on the recommendations of the National Seminar on Rural Sanitation in September 1992, the programme was again revised. The revised programme aimed at an integrated approach to rural sanitation. The Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) under the restructured CRSP was launched with effect from 1.4.1999 following a ‘community led’ and ‘people centered’ approach. TSC moved away from the principle of state-wise allocation to a “demand-driven” approach. The programme lays emphasis on Information, Education and Communication (IEC) for generation of effective demand for sanitation facilities. It also lays emphasis on school sanitation and hygiene education for bringing about attitudinal and behavioral changes for adoption of hygienic practices from an early age.

  • To encourage the Panchayati Raj Institutions to take up sanitation promotion, the incentive award scheme of Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) was launched in 2005. The award is given to those PRIs which attain 100% open defecation free environment. This award publicized the sanitation programme significantly all across the country.

  • Encouraged with initial success of NGP, and looking into the need to upscale the sanitation interventions, the TSC was revamped as the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, (NBA) in 2012, with the objective to accelerate the sanitation coverage in the rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community through renewed strategies and saturation approach and to transform rural India into Nirmal Bharat.

  • While the programme has been successful to some extent, the fact that there are still a large number of rural households without access to safe sanitation facilities, which is a issue which needs to be tackled on war footing in a time bound manner, the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) has been launched on 2nd October, 2014, which aims at attaining a 100% Open Defecation Free India by 2019.

1.2 The main objectives of the SBM (Gramin) are as under:

  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.

  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2019 with all Gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status.

  • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.

  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.

  • Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.

1.3 The major components of the SBM (Gramin) are:-

  • Provision of Individual household latrines: Incentive of Rs. 9000/- and 3000/- for each toilet (Rs. 10800/- and Rs. 1200/- in case of North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Special category states) is given by Central and State Government respectively to BPL households and Identified Above Poverty Line (APL) households after they construct and use toilets. Other APL households are motivated to construct toilets with their own funds or by taking loans from SHGs, banks, cooperative institutions etc

  • Construction of Community Sanitary Complexes(Upto 2 lakh per Community Sanitary Complex). Sharing pattern will be 60:30:10 (Centre: State: Community)

  • Assistance(Upto 35 lakh per district) to Production Centres of sanitary materials and Rural Sanitary Marts

  • Fund for Solid and Liquid Waste Management. A cap of Rs. 7/12/15/20 lakh to be applicable for Gram Panchayats having upto 150/300/500 more than 500 households on a Centre and State /GP sharing ratio of 75:25.

  • Provision for IEC will be at 8% of total Project cost, with 3% to be utilised at the Central level and 5 % at State level

  • Provision for Administrative Cost will be 2% of the Project cost. Sharing pattern will be 75:25 between Centre and State.

1.4 Strategy -

  • Sanitation is Mindset issue. Create demand by Triggering ‘Behaviour change’ by intensifying IEC campaign and Inter Personal Communication (IPC).

  • This IEC/IPC programme will be assisted by Multilateral Agencies like UNICEF, World Bank's WSP etc, national NGOs working on sanitation and groups like Rotary, Nehru Yuva Kendra , CLTS Foundation etc.

  • Outputs (Construction) and Outcomes (Usage which will lead to better health) will be monitored.

  • Mechanism of ‘Trigger’ plus Incentives to construct quality toilets will be used.

  • Strong Administrative structure required for the Mission at Central, State and district level. Foot soldiers required at GP level.

  • Monitor Outcomes (Toilet usage) in consultation with Min. of Health. Monitor Outputs in terms of Expenditure and toilets constructed.

  • Use of Technology to Monitor Household coverage through a Hand held device to capture photos of beneficiary, toilet and Lat/Long. coordinates. – Pilot done.

  • Innovative, Low cost and User friendly technologies for toilet and Solid and Liquid Waste Management to be pursued.

  • States, which performs well in their IEC campaign, behavioural change and toilet construction effort under the Swachh Bharat Mission to be incentivised. Gram Panchayats performing well under the Mission will be incentivised with funds for Waste Water Management.

  • Launching the Swachh Bharat Award –for Individuals; Institutions; GPs, Districts; States who do exceptional work.

1.5 Funding Pattern :

  • Component-Wise earmarking and funding pattern is as under :-

  • S.N. Component Amount earmarked as percent of the SBM (Gramin) project outlay Contribution Share
    GOI State Beneficiary Household/ Community
    a. IEC, Start Up Activity and Capacity Building Up to 8% 75% 25% 0%
    b. Revolving Fund Up to 5% 80% 20% 0%
    c. (i) Individual Household Latrines Actual amount required for full coverage Rs.9000 (Rs.10800 in case of North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Special category States) Rs.3000 (Rs.1200 in case of North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Special category States)
    (ii) Community Sanitary Complexes Actual amount required for full coverage 60% 30% 0%
    d. Administrative charges Up to 2% 75% 25% 10%
    e. Solid/Liquid Waste Management (Capital Cost) Actual amount as per SLWM project cost within limits permitted 75% 25% 0%

1.6 Present Status -

  • Only about 22% of the rural families had access to toilets in 2001. With the efforts put into the Total Sanitation Campaign/Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) this has gone up to 32.70% as per Census 2011. Further as per NSSO 2012, 40.60% rural households have toilets. All rural households are planned to be covered with sanitary facilities by 2019.

  • (i) Physical achievements made during last 2 years and current year

  • SBM (Gramin) is demand driven scheme hence no annual targets are fixed. Achievements made under SBM (Gramin) during last two years and current year is as under:

  • Component 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15(Upto 31.10.2014)
    Household toilets 45,59,162 49,76,294 13,70,347
    School toilets 76,396 37,696 8,748
    Anganwadi toilets 36,677 22,318 3,325
  • (ii) The Revised Estimate and actual expenditure during the last two years and current year

  • The revised estimate and actual expenditure during the last 2 years and current is as under Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) :

  • Year Revised Estimates Actual Expenditure % Utilization
    2012-13 2500.00 2473.29 98.93
    2013-14 2300.00 2250.32 97.84
    2014-15(Upto 31.10.2014) 4260.00 803.16 18.85

For more details goto SBM Guidlines


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