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  • Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases in developing countries. India is no exception to this. Government started the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women.

  • The concept of sanitation was expanded to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal. With this broader concept of sanitation, CRSP adopted a “demand driven” approach with the name “Total Sanitation Campaign” (TSC) with effect from 1999. The revised approach emphasized more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities to increase awareness among the rural people and generation of demand for sanitary facilities. This enhanced people’s capacity to choose appropriate options through alternate delivery mechanisms as per their economic condition. The Programme was implemented with focus on community-led and people centered initiatives. Financial incentives were provided to Below Poverty Line (BPL) households for construction and usage of individual household latrines (IHHL) in recognition of their achievements. Assistance was also extended for construction of school toilet units, Anganwadi toilets and Community Sanitary Complexes (CSC) apart from undertaking activities under Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM).

  • To give a fillip to the TSC, Government of India also launched the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) that sought to recognise the achievements and efforts made in ensuring full sanitation coverage. The award gained immense popularity and contributed effectively in bringing about a movement in the community for attaining the Nirmal Status thereby significantly adding to the achievements made for increasing the sanitation coverage in the rural areas of the country.

  • Encouraged by the success of NGP, the TSC is being renamed as “Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan” (NBA). The objective is to accelerate the sanitation coverage in the rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community through renewed strategies and saturation approach. Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) envisages covering the entire community for saturated outcomes with a view to create Nirmal Gram Panchayats with following priorities:

    • Provision of Individual Household Latrine (IHHL) of both Below Poverty Line (BPL) and Identified Above Poverty Line (APL) households within a Gram Panchayat (GP).

    • Gram Panchayats where all habitations have access to water to be taken up. Priority may be given to Gram Panchayats having functional piped water supply.

    • Provision of sanitation facilities in Government Schools and Anganwadis in Government buildings within these GPs.

    • Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) for proposed and existing Nirmal Grams.

    • Extensive capacity building of the stake holders like Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) and field functionaries for sustainable sanitation.

    • Appropriate convergence with MNREGS with unskilled man-days and skilled man-days.


The main objectives of the NBA are as under:

  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.

  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Nirmal Bharat by 2022 with all gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status.

  • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.

  • To cover the remaining schools not covered under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Anganwadi Centres in the rural areas with proper sanitation facilities and undertake proactive promotion of hygiene education and sanitary habits among students.

  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.

  • Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.


  • The strategy is to transform rural India into ‘Nirmal Bharat’ by adopting the 'community led' and 'people centered' strategies and community saturation approach. A "demand driven approach" is to be continued with emphasis on awareness creation and demand generation for sanitary facilities in houses, schools and for cleaner environment. Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the community needs. The provision of incentives for individual household latrine units to the poorest of the poor households has been widened to cover the other needy households too so as to attain community outcomes. Availability of water in the Gram Panchayat shall be an important factor for sustaining sanitation facilities created. Rural School Sanitation remains a major component and an entry point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people. Wider technology options are being provided to meet the customer preferences and location- specific needs. Intensive IEC Campaign is the corner stone of the programme involving Panchayati Raj Institutions, Co-operatives, ASHA, Anganwadi workers, Women Groups, Self Help Groups, NGOs etc. A roadmap for engagement of corporate houses is being introduced. More transparent system involving social audit and active people’s participation in the implementation process of NBA is being introduced. Convergence with MNREGS shall also be important to facilitate the rural households with fund availability for creating their own sanitation facilities.


  • The Guidelines of SBM and the provisions hereunder are applicable with effect from 01.04.2012. Implementation of SBM is proposed with ‘Gram Panchayat ‘as the base unit. A project proposal that emanates from a district is scrutinized and consolidated by the State Government and transmitted to the Government of India (Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation) as a State Plan. NBA is to be implemented in phases with start-up activities. Funds are to be made available for preliminary IEC work. The physical implementation gets oriented towards satisfying the felt-needs, wherein individual households choose from a menu of options for their household latrines. The built-in flexibility in the menu of options gives the poor and the disadvantaged families opportunity for subsequent upgradation depending upon their requirements and financial position. In the “campaign approach”, a synergistic interaction between the Government agencies and other stakeholders is essential. To bring about the desired behavioural changes for relevant sanitary practices, intensive IEC and advocacy, with participation of NGOs/Panchayati Raj Institutions/resource organizations is envisaged.

  • SBM will be implemented with a district as the project. The States/UTs are expected to prepare/revise NBA Projects for all the districts, consolidate at State level as State Plan and submit before the Government of India.


  • Start-Up Activities

  • IEC Activities

  • Capacity Building

  • Construction of Individual Household Latrines

  • Rural Sanitary Marts and Production Centers

  • Provision of Revolving Fund in the District

  • Community Sanitary Complex

  • Institutional Toilets- School and Anganwadi toilets

  • Solid and Liquid Waste Management

  • Maintenance of facilities created under NBA

  • Administrative Charges

For more details goto NBA guidlines


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